The ideologist of the Bulgarian national revolution was born in Kotel on April 14, 1821. His whole life is subordinated to an idea - the liberation of enslaved Bulgaria.
April 1842 - Second Brahlin rebellion
Georgi Rakovski is following the political events. Understanding the rebellion in Nis and the revolt prepared in Braila (First Braille, 1841) goes to Wallachia. After his failure and the appropriate foreign policy, Georgi Rakovski began preparations for a second rebellion. The Greek side is Stavros Georgiou. After his failure Rakovski is hiding, but understanding that innocent were arrested, he decided to surrender. From the minutes during his interrogation, it becomes clear that he excuses all those who are arrested. He transfers blame on himself and those who have fled. These are the testimonies of Georgi Makedon. Upon coming to Braila, Rakovski received a Greek passport under that name. The court condemns the "Geschwister Gheorghe" and six others to death. Using the surrender orders (foreign nationals can only be sued by the countries whose subjects are) Rakovski and the convicted Greeks apply to the Greek Consul General in Bucharest Rizos. He believes it is a matter of Greek dignity, a holder of a Greek passport not to be abandoned. On July 14, 1842, the verdict was confirmed, but the convicted were handed over to the Greek consulate in Bucharest. The Greek Plenipotentiary Minister in Constantinople Mavrocordatos supplied Rakovski with money and sent him to Marseilles.
June 26, 1857 - Publication of the newspaper "Bulgarian Journal"
Georgi Stoykov Rakovski wants to publish a Bulgarian newspaper but does not have the necessary funds. That is why on June 26, 1857, the first issue of the "Bulgarian Journal" was published by Danilo Medakovic. On this occasion, Rakovski says: "A man with empty hands does not do what he wants, but what he can." At the insistence of the Turkish government, the newspaper was stopped and Rakovski expelled to Wallachia.
1857 - Issue of "Forest Passenger"
In 1857, in Novi Sad, Rakovski published the ''Gorski Patnik''(Forest Traveler). In the poem, for the first time, haidut is presented as a phenomenon in the history of our people. This is the first revolutionary poem.
June 15, 1862 - the status of the Bulgarian Supreme Command
G. Rakovsky sets up two plans for the liberation of Bulgaria, which do not go away. In April 1862, in Belgrade, he established a governing body - a Timely Bulgarian Command, and prepared his status. Communal rule should direct the cases concerning the preparation of the Bulgarians for an uprising.
1862 - Establishment of the First Bulgarian Legion
After successful talks with the Serbian government, Georgi Rakovski creates a Bulgarian troop - the First Bulgarian Legion. Its numerical composition numbers about 600 young Bulgarians. Some of them are studying in Odessa, Vienna and Belgrade; voivodes and ex-haidouts; future organizers of the national revolution. Among them are Vasil Levski, Stefan Karadzha, Iv. Kursovski, Ilyo Markov and others.
1 August 1862 - Call to the Bulgarian People for a Revolt
On August 1, 1862, Rakovski also issued a letter of call, which was intended to be distributed during the uprising. With him, he calls the Bulgarians to rebel and is "Better brothers," he writes, a sweet short life lived free, not a long-awaited slave life ... let no one wait for others to release him. Our freedom depends on us. "
January 1, 1867 - "Law for the Folk Forest Chetas for the 1867 Summer"
This is Rakovski's latest plan for the liberation of Bulgaria. It provides for this to happen again with a nationwide uprising, but no longer to rely on foreign aid, but only on its own. It is envisaged a supreme headquarters to create a chetas army and by a signal it will enter the Bulgarian territories. Pre-prepared Bulgarians will rebel. It clarifies the organization and the hierarchical system of the army. This is the most complete justification of the chetas tactics in our national liberation movement.
9/10 October 1867 - the death of Georgi Stoykov Rakovski
On October 9, 1867, two hours after midnight, in Bucharest, the heart of the Patriarch of the Bulgarian National Liberation Movement, Georgi Stoykov Rakovski stopped beating. The Yellow Guest - Tuberculosis - takes the life of the fiery patriot who, throughout his life with feather and saber, fights for the liberation of our enslaved Fatherland.
На следващия ден Раковски е погребан в букурещкото гробище “Щербан водъ”. Последно сбогом си вземат всички български емигранти, близки, много румънци, служители при чуждите дипломатически представителства в Румъния, журналисти и общественици. В смъртния акт е записано: “Г. С. Раковски, православен, свободна професия, възраст четиридесет и седем годишен, неженен, по народност българин”. Тъй като умира в крайна бедност, разноските по погребението поема братовчед му Никола Балкански.
Rakovski dies, leaving behind a number of debts. Four days after his death, all his belongings - his household, his books, his uniform and his weapon - were offered for auction to pay his debts to private individuals. Many items have been purchased by Romanians and they are irretrievably lost for history.
October 1942 - transferring Rakovski's bone remains from Sofia to Kotel
В писмото си от 3 февруари 1861 г. до Йосиф Дайнелов, Г. Раковски пише: “Аз съм всякога бил българин и ще бъда не само до гроб такъв, но еще и после смъртта ще оставя завещание, и прах ми да ся не смеси с друга народност!…”
Това негово желание е изпълнено през 1885 г., когато костните му останки са пренесени от Букурещ в София. Котленци обаче са неспокойни, че те не са в родния Котел и поемат инициативата за пренасянето им. Освен това, увековечавайки неговото дело, в центъра на града през 1933 г. е открит паметник. Още повече, че в писмото-отговор до Русенския клон на опълченското дружество от 1885 г., давайки съгласието си за препогребването на останките на брат й, Неша пише: “Аз никогаш не ще се съглася за пренасянето на братовите ми кости не в Котел, а на друго място. Брат ми е роден в Котел, там трябва да се погребат костите му.”
Особено активен в начинанието е Рафаил Райков — котленец, живеещ в София. Той призовава своите съграждани и председателя на Котленската дружба в София проф. Георги Генов, да ги прибере в Котел и да се спасят от „по-нататъшно поругаване свещените останки на Раковски.” От 1937 г. Р. Райков води активна кореспонденция с Министерството на външните работи и вероизповеданията, и със Светата Софийска митрополия. “За да се свършат кощунствата с тия кости – пише той до Министерството на външните работи на 23 август 1937 г., моля, да ми се предадат и по установения ред отнеса в родния град на покойника (Котел), та дано там поне намерят покой, който не намериха в столицата на България, за която живя, работи и умря.”
През 1942 г., на 75-та годишнина от смъртта на Раковски, ковчежето с костните му останки поемат от София през Стралджа, към родния Котел. На 24 октомври 1942 г. са посрещнати от много граждани, народни представители, министъра на просветата, бургаския областен директор и почетна рота войници. Шествието начело с духовенството, с църковни хоругви и камбанен звън потегля към храма “Св. апостоли Петър и Павел”. На площада, пред паметника на Раковски народният представител от Котел Данаил Жечев произнася кратка реч. В църквата ковчежето е положено в специален саркофаг, който изработват ученици от котленското столарско училище под ръководството на учителя-резбар, котленецът Гойко В. Гойков. На следващия ден, след панахидата, проф. Михаил Арнаудов и министърът на просветата произнасят речи.
Although far from home, Rakovski does not cease to be interested and gets information about the enslaved Bulgarians. When the Bulgarian emigrants in Serbia planned an uprising in the spring of 1857 and informed him of his intention, he first searched for the Bulgarian emigration in Russia and Romania. Considering that the international situation is not conducive to such an undertaking, Rakovski manages to convince the Bulgarian patriots in Belgrade that they do not have the necessary preparation and that the moment is not appropriate. In his letter to Iv. Angelov(Culin) in April 1857 he wrote: "You, who do not know well today's circumstances, and you think that every bird flying by air can easily be cought and eaten." The following year, 1858, when he moved to Turkey's European realm, Rakovski created the First Liberation Plan of Bulgaria. He begins with a call and insists that "a man who does not have civil independence, he does not exist in a world ... himself creator whoes arms has created a man, created him to be free and to live a life independent ..." and " Freedom lost, with fight we must get it back! "
Планът има положителни страни, а именно: предвижда се създаване на общ ръководен център (в Одеса се учредява „Благотворно българско общество”), предварителна подготовка вътре в страната, осигуряване на съюзници, избиране на подходящ момент, дипломатическа подготовка в Европа, очертаване тактиката на въстаническата войска. Но има и отрицателни – прекомерната вяра на Раковски в готовността на българите за едно такова дело; липсва ясно виждане за въоръжаването и липсата на организирана вътрешна мрежа.
Stoyko Sabev Popovich
Stoyko Popovich is one of the prominent figures in Kotel in the first half of the 19th century. He takes an active part in the economic and social life of the settlement. He is engaged in abadzhiistvo(making of thick, dense woolen cloth), and technical innovations which is important part of the development. According to some, the first charks(machines for braiding knitwear) and a waving drag factory were made by Stoyko Popovich. He invites the master Vassil Karlovchanina, who assembles the charks and trains for a while to work on them.
In the first quarter of the 19th century, Popovich is associated with Turkish Shukri Bey. At that time a conflict arose between St. Popovich and Kotel's gaffers, and he is alleged he "holds" money. To avoid prison, he bets his shop to Tina Papazolola's son. Shukri Bey advocates for him.
This is not his only clash with Kotel's gaffers. In the 40s of the 19th century, he was fighting against the abusers of the gaffers. Rakovski's father was charged with checking the papers. Therefore, a delegation led by Stoyko Popovich heads for Vidin to ask for a survey to reveal the abuses. For their part, the gaffers sent defamatory evidence that the father and son were rebels against the state, and in January 1844 the son and later the father was arrested. In the biggest winter, under a strong convoy, after a three-week trip they arrive in Constantinople. They were thrown into the dungeon Tophane under very harsh conditions. It is only after seven months that the case is heard and it is clear that they are innocent. But a solution to the High Gate arrives after close for seven years in a dungeon. Geogi Rakovski was released at the beginning of 1847, and later his father. Returning to Kotel, he does his job, but fails to return to his old position. Disturbed physically, a few years later, he died.
Nashka Rakovska is Georgi Rakovski's older sister. She marries Stoyan Kirov, with whom she has three children - Kiro, Jordan, and Zoya. When her brother gets sick, she takes care of him. On October 9, 1867, Rakovski died in the hands of his sister Nessa.
Because of her strange character and courageous deeds, kotlentsi call her wild and a mess. For her strangerness, songs and memories are preserved.
When her father and her brother were in prison in Constantinople in 1844 for the delation of the gaffers, she waits for Tinio in a dark alley - one of the culprits for their suffering, and stones him. In 1854, G. Rakovski wanders through the Kotlenski Balkan and secretly from the others, along with her friend, Nanka goes to see him and bring him food. But they were once traced by the Turks. Then she does something that requires courage and wits - she takes off her clothes, starts playing and gathers thorns. The Turks are amazed. Her girlfriend tells them she's crazy, they feel sorry for her and even give her money.
The brave and eccentric woman is also fighting against the Pharariot clergy. He expels the church from a Greek cleric, throwing away the "holy relics" brought by him. The following 1860, at the Transfiguration, Pop Kostadin began to lead the service in Greek. No one besides her decides to contradict. Then Nanka jumps on the pope, disturbs him, pulls his beard and throws him out of the church with the words, "You will not respect our mother tongue, is it?" Then a song later appeared.
Because of this, she was summoned to turn to the Turkish authorities in Turnovo, but she was released, they could not put up with her. And there is the song that documents this event.
Granny Gana tells: "The Pop would say that when the bishop came to judge her that the pop would not enter her house, she said," And you, donkey, do not. "Another says," Aunt Nanka stole 2-3 big tins of wax (from the church), that our shirts for the sleeves of Hadji Dimitrov's boys. The shirts melted in wax and sent them to the Balkans for the cheta. "
After the Liberation, the Prime Minister, Stambolov comes to Kotel and meets Nanka Stoykova to offer her a staff retirement pension. She refused and said, "Was it you, Stephan, did you eat the people, my brother is going to fight for?"
Nanka has a colorful personality - playful and jolly, but also very compassionate, and leaves lasting memories in the people of Kotel.
Matei Popovich is uncle of Georgi Rakovski. Matei, along with his brothers, led Kotel's inhabitants to his defense when, in 1800, Indje and Kara Feise attacked him with thier robbers.
Rakovski's nephew, son of his sister Nessa. Strongly attached to his uncle, participates in the First Bulgarian Legion, and later on is also near him. Kiro Stoyanov keeps the archive of Rakovski, and later passes it to the museum in Kotel.